Christ Our Sacrifice (Psalm 22)

Sermon Recap

In Luke 2:34-35, Simeon tells Mary, Jesus’s mother, that “a sword will pierce” her soul because of her child. Psalm 22 foretells that anguish in detail. It described the sacrifice of the Messiah, Jesus Christ, to atone for the sins of his people.

1. The Abandoned Son

In Mark 15:34-37, we hear Jesus praying Psalm 22 which he is hanging on the cross. While many people have rejected God through the centuries, only Jesus was abandoned by him. But God abandoned Jesus, not because Christ had sinned, but because he took our sin on himself so he could atone for it.

2. The Cost of Atonement

Atonement means, literally, at-one-ment. We ran from God and rejected him. Christ died so that the hostility our sin created could be put to an end. His sacrifice was the costliest one ever given, as St. Peter said in 1 Peter 1:18-19: “you were ransomed from the futile ways inherited from your forefathers, not with perishable things such as silver or gold, but with the precious blood of Christ, like that of a lamb without blemish or spot.” God paid the highest price possible for you, to be at-one with you. That means he will never abandon you.

3. The Hope of Faith

Faith looks back and knows that “he has done it” (Psalm 22:31); or as Jesus said in John 19:31, “It is finished.” Knowing that Christ has atoned for us is the foundation of our faith. And faith produces hope (Psalm 22:26-27) through any trial in this life, which, in turn, produces praise and worship in our hearts to God (Psalm 22:22-23).

Reflection & Application Questions

  1. Have you ever felt abandoned by someone? How did it feel?

  2. Jesus lived his whole life in perfect, loving relationship with God the Father. Then, on the cross, he was forsaken by God when he became sin for us. What do you think that was like?

  3. How could David describe Jesus’s crucifixion so accurately 1,000 years before it happened?

  4. Psalm 22:4 says that God is “enthroned on the praises” of his people. If God were to make a throne from the praise that you give him, what kind of throne would it be? Why?

  5. What does it mean to you that God paid way more for your atonement than he paid for anything else in the universe? We are surprised when a painting is sold for $450m. Are we shocked that God would pay an even higher price to save us—the blood of his own Son?

  6. If God has paid the highest price in the universe to redeem you, do you think he will ever leave you or forsake you?

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Christ Our King (Psalm 2)

Sermon Recap

Psalm 2 foretells of the coming Messiah, the Christ who would be God’s King over his people.

1. You Need a Better King

Psalm 2:1-3 tells of a world that is determined to have a king other than God, a world in rebellion against him. Whatever we love most in the world is our king. And you serve what you love. The things other than God that we set on the throne of our heart will ultimately hurt us. But God promises a better King.

2. Christ Is the Better King

Psalm 2:6-9 shows that God’s King would be identified with him. His throne is on Zion, where God’s temple was. He would be called God’s Son. Christ is the better King. Because he provides the peace that no other king in this world can provide.

3. Take Refuge in the King

What you love gives you peace. If Christ is our King, if he rules our heart, we are promised peace in this passage. Psalm 2:12 invites us to take refuge in Christ. He is the Prince of Peace (Isaiah 9:6), and he alone can bear the full weight of our hope, expectation, longing, and desire and give us peace in return.

Reflection & Application Questions

  1. Psalm 2:1-3 describes an entire world in rebellion against God. How have you contributed to rebellion in the world against God?

  2. If it’s true that you serve what you love, what are you most tempted to serve besides Christ? Why?

  3. How is Christ a better King than whatever you are tempted to love instead?

  4. Christ Jesus, God’s King, died for your rebellion so you don’t have to. How does this demonstrate his goodness? How does the cross and resurrection prove he is more powerful than any earthly ruler?

  5. Where do you look for peace besides Christ? Why won’t it provide ultimate peace?

  6. In what way do you need to take refuge in Christ today? How will you do that?

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Normal Glory (Titus 3:12-15)

Sermon Recap

Paul closes his letter to Titus in the same way he began: normally! But in the midst of the normal of this letter—and the Christian life—we see the glory of God revealed in Christ and in his church. 

1. God’s Glory in Us Is Personal

We may think of Titus 3:12-15 as the Nebraska of the Bible—flyover country. But Paul lists names of saints for whom Christ died in this passage. It is deeply personal material that reflects God’s glory because:

  1. God is (tri-)personal.

  2. God made us personal to bear his image.

  3. The church is beautifully personal… and therefore glorious.

  4. The church is most gloriously personal when built through relationships

2. God’s Glory Is Devoted, Fruitful, and in Process

God’s glory comes through in us when we are devoted—totally given over to worshipping and serving him. That devotion will make us fruitful and enable us to serve the needs of others. And yet, God knows we are in process, that we haven’t arrived, that we are still learning to follow Christ. This should both humble and encourage us at the same time.

3. God’s Glory in Us Is Normal

Paul closes his letter with something normal—greetings. But for the Christian, even this most normal of things should be shot through with the glory of God. God’s glory is normal. It’s normal because it dwells in the heart of your neighbor. It’s normal because, if you are in Christ, it dwells in you. C.S. Lewis said it well in his sermon, “The Weight of Glory,”

The load, or weight, or burden of my neighbor’s glory should be laid on my back, a load so heavy that only humility can carry it, and the backs of the proud will be broken. It is a serious thing to live in a society of possible gods and godesses, to remember that the dullest and most uninteresting person you can talk to may one day be a creature which, if you saw it now, you would be strongly tempted to worship…. It is in the light of these overwhelming possibilities, it is with the awe and the circumspection proper to them, that we should conduct all our dealings with one another, all friendships, all loves, all play, all politics. There are no ordinary people. You have never talked to a mere mortal. Nations, cultures, arts, civilisations—these are mortal, and their life is to ours as the life of a gnat. But it is immortals whom we joke with, work with, marry, snub, and exploit—immortal horrors or everlasting splendours.… Next to the Blessed Sacrament itself, your neighbor is the holiest object presented to your senses. If he is your Christian neighbour, he is holy in almost the same way, for in him also Christ… the glorifier and the glorified, Glory Himself, is truly hidden.

Reflection & Application Questions 

  1. Why is it significant that God is personal? What does this mean for Christian theology?

  2. Why is our personhood of great significance to God? 

  3. How should our personhood as image bearers shape how we engage the church? How should it inform the way we build relationships?

  4. In what way should you grow in devotion to good works? How have you been fruitful lately? How have you failed to be fruitful? 

  5. Why is it humbling that we are still in process? How is it encouraging?

  6. Do you believe that God’s glory in us is normal? Why is this difficult to believe? Why is it so important for us to believe? 

  7. What is one person God has placed on your heart that you want to grow in relationship with?

Proclaiming Glory (Titus 2:15-3:11)

Sermon Recap

God’s desire is for us to proclaim His greatness and glory as we go about our everyday lives. To bring us to that place, we must understand where we come from, how God changes and transforms us,  and how He wants us to make Him famous in the places He has us.

1. Know Where You Come From

We often have a hard time confronting our pasts but to come to God means reckoning with our history. We need to see how disobedient, foolish, and broken we were so we may know how great a salvation we have and have empathy toward those who do not believe in Christ yet.

2. Own What You Now Have

In the midst of our sinfulness, God met us with goodness, mercy, and loving kindness in Jesus Christ. By pouring out His Spirit upon us, we become a new creation, redeemed, regenerated, renewed as well as heirs to an eternal life gifted to us by God. None of this is ours to claim by our own power but granted by His grace alone.

3. Show Who the Church Is

God changes us so we might witness to a world that desperately needs Him. We do this by deed and by declaration. Good deeds are not for God but for our neighbors, ways in which we love those who aren’t like us and lay down groundwork to engage in conversations about Jesus. We also declare Jesus to this world because people need to know who Jesus is and what He has won for those who believe.

Reflection & Application Questions 

  1. Are there things in your past that you have a hard time discussing or thinking about? Why? What does it take for you to be able to talk to someone else about it?

  2. When you think about a time when you didn’t know God or walked away from faith, what was your life like? What were your desires like? How did Jesus change them?

  3. In what ways has your life changed because of the gospel? What would it look like to live by the Spirit in your everyday life?

  4. What does it look like to do good works for your neighbors rooted in our Savior’s grace? Why is it different from the good works your neighbor does?

  5. How do we grow in declaring the gospel in a world that needs to hear it? Who are the people in your life that you long to talk to about Jesus? Take time and pray for those opportunities!

Revealing Glory (Titus 2:11-14)

Sermon Recap

Paul uses the word “appear” twice in Titus 2:11-14, the word that we get “epiphany” from. There are two epiphanies, revelations of Christ and his grace in this passage. They point to God’s glorious grace being revealed to us and through us to the world. 

1. Grace Revealed to Us in Christ

Titus 2:11 and 2:14 show us the glory of God’s grace in Christ. It is a grace that is without borders, a grace in which God gives himself, a grace that redeems us, and a grace by which Christ cleanses us and makes us his

2. Grace Revealed Through Us to the World

Paul says we need to be trained, disciplined to live for Christ, because his grace is revealed through us to the world around us (Titus 2:12). We need to put off ungodliness and worldly passions and put on self-control, righteousness and godliness. We need to do all that so that we can give faithful witness to Christ and his grace! We have beautiful feet (Romans 10:14-15)! We have been sent to this place to reveal God’s grace.

3. The Hope of Grace to Be Revealed

We can only be part of revealing God’s grace if we put our hope in Christ (Titus 2:13). Without hope, we can’t reveal God’s grace. With hope, we can go with courage into our neighborhoods with the gospel of God’s borderless, self-giving, redeeming, cleansing grace.

Reflection & Application Questions 

  1. Why is it significant that God’s grace is without borders (Titus 2:11)? What is the alternative?

  2. What does it mean to you that God gave himself in Christ? Do you take this for granted?

  3. From what have you been redeemed? What lawlessness do you need deliverance from? 

  4. Do you believe that you are cleansed and belong to God? What shows you this?

  5. In what ways is God using you to reveal his grace to others right now? Name some people that he has put in your life and wants to show his grace to through you!

  6. What sin, selfishness or desires do you need to put off in order to put on Christ and display his grace to others? What does repentance look like for you today?

  7. How does our hope in Christ’s return strengthen us to do good works and share the gospel with neighbors? How can you put on hope today?

Walking in Glory (Titus 2:1-10)

Sermon Recap

In Titus 2:1-10, Paul teaches that our daily existence should fit with the gospel. Titus should teach “what accords with sound doctrine.” Our lives should fall in line with the gospel. The Christian walk should shine with the glory of gospel as its transforming power is worked into the church by the Holy Spirit.

1. Healthy Teaching

This is true because faith in Christ produces love in our lives (see Galatians 5:6). This is the case because our faith in Christ puts us under his authority as Redeeming King and under the Father’s authority as Creator. Healthy teaching leads me to recognize that the earth and everything in it belong to God (Psalm 24:1), and by faith I submit gladly to him. 

2. Life on Life Discipleship Makes a Healthy Body

From the instructions of Paul to Titus regarding the life of the church, there are 6 ideas we should apply to ourselves and our life together as a church:

  1. Healthy members are particular and local, not abstract and universal.

  2. Healthy members learn from each other.

  3. Healthy members live in love for weaker brothers and sisters.

  4. Healthy members aren’t obsessed with their rights.

  5. Healthy members recognize their unique responsibilities and callings in God’s kingdom. 

  6. Healthy members beautify the gospel.

Reflection & Application Questions 

  1. Why is there such a biblical emphasis on faith producing love (Gal. 5:6; 1 Tim. 1:5)? 

  2. Do you know the Apostle’s Creed? Have you memorized it? Meditated on it? Take a few moments and read it over. Consider memorizing it and making it part of your devotional life. See New City Catechism Q31

  3. The Christian faith says that we are under authority. Do you live as under authority? In what ways is this normal for you? In what ways do you need to grow in submission to God? 

  4. Life on life discipleship requires relationships with others. What discipling relationships are in your life? How have these helped you or others to grow?

  5. Do you willingly live in love and give up your rights for the sake of others? What’s one way you should grow in this?

  6. What are your responsibilities and callings in God’s kingdom? Do you gladly embrace these? 

  7. Does your life beautify the gospel? In what ways does it? In what ways does it fall short? 

Protecting Glory (Titus 1:10-16)

Sermon Recap

Paul uses strong language to attack the false teachers—legalists—in the church in Crete. He teaches Titus in this section how to protect the church from legalism: by preaching the gospel of God’s grace in Christ

1. Legalism vs. the Gospel

There are many ways Paul opposes legalism to the gospel in this passage. There are 6 ways we see Paul oppose them:

  1. Legalism rebels against grace. It is fundamentally opposed to the gospel (Eph. 2:4-9).

  2. Legalism centers on self, not Christ. It is about us, what we get and what we can do (Tit. 1:11).

  3. Legalism puts human rules in God’s place. See Titus 1:14 and Colossians 2:17.

  4. Legalism lies about God’s truth. Paul appeals to Crete’s reputation in Tit. 1:12-13 to show these legalists are opposed to gospel truth. 

  5. Legalism destroys the church. It overturns whole churches (Tit. 1:11) by undermining the foundation of the church—the gospel of Christ.

  6. Legalism is plausible to broken people; the gospel makes no sense. See 1 Cor. 1:18. 

2. Protecting Glory by Preaching the Gospel

Advice is a form of law—do this and you will live (better!). As a church, we want to give Christ before advice. To protect God’s glory in the church, we need to preach the gospel. This means we should:

  1. Know the gospel.

  2. Preach the gospel to yourself.

  3. Preach the gospel to each other.

Reflection & Application Questions 

1. Why is legalism so attractive to us? 

2. Why is legalism so destructive to the church?

3. What is one way you see a tendency toward legalism in your life?

4. Do you know the gospel? Is it YOUR story? Does it define everything about you and direct all that you do in your life? 

5. What does it mean to preach the gospel to yourself? If you want to better understand this, watch this great teaching from Jerry Bridges:

6. What does it mean to preach the gospel to each other in the church? What are some ways you can do this? What should you avoid when you try to do this?

Fostering Glory (Titus 1:5-9)

Sermon Recap

Paul writes to Titus that he should “put what remained [in the church in Crete] into order” (Titus 1:5). The church is like a broken nose that needs to be set right again in order to heal. Titus isn’t supposed to set it right himself. He should appoint elders in the church to do the hard work of helping the church become healthy and holy. The glory of God is the health and holiness of the church. And elders are called to foster glory in the church through humble servant leadership.

1. Healthy Life

Elders can’t help the church pursue spiritual health if they don’t have healthy lives themselves. Paul teaches that elders should be:

  1. The chief repenters in the church - Jesus said, “But whoever would be great among you must be your servant, and whoever would be first among you must be slave of all. For even the Son of Man came not to be served but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many” (Mark 10:44-45)

  2. Leaders of a healthy household - If they can’t run their own households well, why would God trust them to run his?

  3. Healthy in holiness - Elders model to the church what it means to walk in holiness.

2. Healthy Teaching

The one skill Paul says that elders need to have is how to teach God’s Word. Because the way the church knows Christ is through the teaching of Scripture!

In light of this passage, we should:

  1. Learn from our elders

  2. Submit to our elders

  3. Hold our elders accountable

  4. Recommend elders

  5. Thank God for our elders

Reflection & Application Questions 

  1. Why are elders supposed to be the chief repenters in the church? 

  2. Based on the standard that Paul describes, how healthy is your spiritual life? 

  3. How open are you to being rebuked by others when you need it? Why or why not?

  4. How should you learn from and submit to the elders of the church? How does this honor God?

  5. If you saw something that was crooked in an elder’s life, would you be willing to hold them accountable? Why or why not?

  6. Is there anyone in our church that you think would make a good elder? Who and why?

Full of Glory (Titus 1:1-4)

Sermon Recap

Normal life isn’t typically full of mystery. It isn’t shot through with wonder or brimming with glory. It’s average. Ordinary. Hum drum. Normal. Church life can especially feel that way. But Paul shows us in Titus 1:1-4 that, in Christ, our normal is full of glory. 

1. Glorious Identity

Paul begins his letter by speaking of his (and our) glorious identity in Christ. He is a slave of God (just like Jesus; Phil. 2:5-8), sent by Christ to people like us. And we have been chosen by God to know and be like him. Our identity in Christ is glorious!

2. Glorious Calling

God has called us to make Christ visible (manifest) through the proclamation of his Word (see also 1 John 1:1-3). When we preach Christ, we put him on display for the world to see! Our mission as God’s people is to make the eternal Son of God, Jesus Christ himself manifest here and now. 

3. Glorious Family 

Paul calls Titus “my true child in the faith” (v.4). Paul has poured into Titus in a discipling relationship that has brought Titus to a place of maturity from which he can pour into others—disciples, making disciples, making disciples. This is who we are and the glorious family God has made us part of by his grace.

Reflection & Application Questions 

  1. Who are you? How would you define your identity? Why?

  2. How does Paul define our identity in Christ? What is glorious about this identity? Why is it so difficult to remember how glorious it is?

  3. Are you a willing slave of Christ? What stops you from submitting fully to his will?

  4. We have the glorious calling of putting the Son of God on display for all those around us. How confident do you feel in your ability to pursue that calling? How can you grow to do it?

  5. We are part of a glorious family of disciples making disciples. Who is pouring into you? Who are you pouring into? How are you participating in this discipling-making family that is the church? 

Divine Communion (John 6:35, 51, 53-56)

Sermon Recap

You have a body. God made, loves and is redeeming it in Christ. In the sacraments, our bodies participate in Christ’s redemption for us at the cross and in the resurrection. In the sacraments, our bodies participate in our union with Christ by faith. In the Lord’s Supper, Christ himself communes with us, body and soul, by His Spirit. 

1. God Communes with His People

Deep down, we all have a longing for the divine. In Christ, God offers to satisfy that deepest longing. The Bible is a story of God’s desire to commune with his people. And he brings that communion to fruition in Christ, and offers Christ himself to us in the Lord’s Supper. 

2. Communion Unites Us to Christ

Jesus sacrificed his flesh and blood at the cross. He gave himself for us all. And when we receive his body and blood in the bread and wine of the Lord’s Supper, we receive HIM. We eat and drink by faith, and it’s by faith that we are united to him, that we abide in him: “Whoever feeds on my flesh and drinks my blood abides in me, and I in him” (John 6:56). 

3. Communion Makes Us Christ’s Body on Earth

The important transformation taking place in the Lord’s Supper is not in the bread and wine themselves. The important transformation taking place in the Lord’s Supper is in us, the people of God. God saves us soul and body so that we can put him on display for all the world to see (1 Cor. 10:16-17). We express our union with Christ AND with one another when we share the Lord’s Supper. 

Reflection & Application Questions 

  1. Do you think of your body theologically? What would change about the way you see your physical nature if you did?

  2. What do you desire most in life? What would happen if you got it? 

  3. How could Christ’s offer to us as the Bread of Life (John 6:35) fulfill our deepest longings?

  4. What does it tell you about God that he desires to commune with us?

  5. Why isn’t communion like a magic diet pill that stops us from every feeling spiritually hungry again? What is communion like?

  6. Do you believe Christ meets you in the Lord’s Supper (John 6:53-58)? What makes this difficult to believe?

  7. Why is reconciliation in our relationships such an important aspect of the Lord’s Supper? Are there people in your life you need to reconcile with before you take it again?

Given for You (Luke 22:17-20)

Sermon Recap

In 1529, the first Protestants convened to craft a common theological statement, but divided over the words in Luke 22:19: “This is my body,” and “in remembrance of me.” Ever since, there has been a tendency to focus on the manner in which Christ is present in the Lord’s Supper. But what is most important in that verse often gets left out. Jesus said his body is “given for you.” When we take the Lord’s Supper, we receive Christ’s ultimate gift, his body and blood given for us.

1. Christ Gave Himself for Us

Christ gave himself for us at the cross, and the Lord’s Supper is a participation in that sacrifice. It is a fulfillment of the Passover (Exodus 12)—Christ is a our Passover Lamb (John 1:29). It is a participation in the kingdom, as Christ was enthroned on the cross. And in the Lord’s Supper, our position as the body of Christ is enacted as we share the common bread together. 

2. We Participate in Christ’s Body and Blood

How can we participate in Christ’s body and blood if he is physically at the Father’s right hand? Do we pull him down to earth in our liturgy? Are we merely remembering him in communion? No, we don’t pull Christ down, but he comes to us by the power of his Spirit in the Supper. We truly participate in Christ because he meets us in communion by his grace.

3. Faith, Hope, and Love

In the Lord’s Supper, we are vitally connected to Christ in faith, hope and love. The Lord’s Supper bolsters our faith as we look back to the sacrifice of Christ to forgive us of sin (1 Peter 2:24). It strengthens our hope as we look forward to the wedding supper of the Lamb that communion anticipates (Revelation 19:6-9). And it renews our love for one another in the church, which IS the Body of Christ (1 Corinthians 10:16-17).

Reflection & Application Questions 

  1. How do you typically think of the Lord’s Supper? In the past, would you fall more in Luther’s or Zwingli’s “camp”?

  2. What are the most important things Jesus teaches us about communion in Luke 22:17-20? 

  3. Why has the Lord’s Supper been so hugely important to Christians in church history?

  4. Why is it crucial for us to eat and drink in a “worthy” manner? Who makes us worthy?

  5. Do you believe Christ communes with us in the Lord’s Supper? Why or why not?

  6. As you look ahead to next Sunday, which theological virtue do you need most to be built up for you in the Lord’s Supper? Faith—looking back to the cross? Hope—looking forward to the resurrection? Or love—looking around at your brothers and sisters in Christ? Pray for this!

The Road to Emmaus (Luke 24:13-35)

Sermon Recap

The Christian life is a journey that will have its twists and turns. In those moments of difficulty and depression,  how do we know our God is with us? On the road to Emmaus, Jesus shows us how He always makes Himself known and how we always have reason to worship.

1. A Road of Disappointment

When we’re broken and disappointed, our circumstances and struggles often keep us from seeing what and who is right before us. We often wonder where God is in those moments. There are times though when God hides himself from us so we might be led to greater purpose and understanding. Jesus isn’t afraid of our doubts and disappointment and welcomes spiritual honesty.

2. A Road of Discovery

Jesus rebukes the followers on the road for missing what has been before them this whole time. He gives them the greatest Bible study ever and then eats a meal with them. These two things point to how Jesus has chosen to make Himself present to His people: through His Word and sacraments.

3. A Road of Delight

Once Jesus is revealed to these disciples, they are changed. They talk about their hearts burning, a transformation of their emotions and desires about Jesus, how they knew things were different within them. Furthermore, they respond by immediately going back to Jerusalem and sharing the good news with others.

Reflection and Application

  1. Has there ever been a time when you’ve been so disappointed, you didn’t want to talk to other people? How did it feel to have to engage your sadness when others asked you questions about it?

  2. What does it look like to be spiritually honest with Jesus? When you have doubts and questions, how do you explore them?

  3. How do people go astray when they look for Jesus outside of the Bible? Why is it so dangerous to define him by our personal experiences or emotions?

  4. How can Jesus’ presence at the Lord’s Supper be a blessing to us amidst our disappointments?

  5. What does the joy of re-discovering the presence of Christ in your life look like? How can we regularly remain in this joy?

Baptismal Union (Romans 6:1-8)


Full Text of Sermon

Due to technical issues, we do not have an audio recording available online. Instead, we have posted full text of this sermon. You can read the whole sermon or simply access the recap and reflection questions below.

Sermon Recap

When a couple gets married, they exchange rings as a symbol of their covenant union with one another. It is an outward sign (“look, we’re married!”) as well as a tangible seal (“with this ring I thee wed”). In a similar way, baptism signifies and seals our union with Christ. It is the sacrament of our union with the Son of God. 

1. Baptism Signifies and Seals Our Union with Christ

Scripture says a lot about the meaning of baptism for our union with Christ. It “counts the ways” he loves his bride, the Church, through baptism. In baptism, we participate sacramentally in Christ Himself! Baptism means union with Christ…

    1. In his death (Rom. 6:3-5)

    2. In his resurrection (Rom. 6:5)

    3. In adoption (Gal. 3:26-27)

    4. In new birth (Titus 3:5)

    5. in the Holy Spirit (Acts 1:5)

    6. In freedom from sin (Rom. 6:7)

    7. As God’s holy saints (Eph. 5:26-27)

    8. As the Church! (Eph. 4:4-6)

2. Live Your Baptism!

Baptism gives us a new identity as through it we are united to Christ. And in light of that new baptismal identity, the NT frequently calls us to obedience—to live our baptism. Romans 6:11-14 and Titus 3:8-11 demonstrate this. Sin divides me from Christ. Baptism has united me to him.

Reflection & Application Questions 

  1. Are you amazed that God would unite you to Christ through baptism? In what ways does this reality make you stand back in wonder? If you lack that sense of wonder, why is that? 

  2. Which of the eight elements of our baptismal union with Christ that we highlighted is most encouraging to you? Which is the most difficult for you to remember or take ownership of? Why?

  3. What does Jesus say about the little children in Luke 18:15-17? How should our Lord’s posture toward the least of these inform our perspective of them in the church?

  4. Look at Romans 6:11-14 and Titus 3:8-11. What is the connection between baptism and the way we live the Christian life? Why is the connection so clear for Paul? Why is it less clear to us?

  5. Choose one element of your baptism to meditate on this week. How do you want that element to inform the way you live before God and others this week?

Always God's Plan (Colossians 2:8-14)

Short Paper on Infant Baptism

We mentioned this in church yesterday. As you have questions and want to delve into this topic more deeply, please refer to this paper from Redeemer NYC. 

Sermon Recap

Sometimes we approach the Bible like a puzzle we don’t have the boxtop for. But Colossians 1:17 says that, in Christ, “all things hold together.” He is the boxtop to the biblical puzzle, the one who makes sense of the entire story. It was always God’s plan to redeem us through Christ, and it was always God’s plan for us to participate in Christ through baptism. 

1. Baptism Fulfills Circumcision

Circumcision was first given to Abraham in Genesis 17:9-14. Abraham was circumcised as a believer, someone who had put their faith in God’s promise of Christ (see Genesis 15:6). Abraham was circumcised on the basis of his faith and God’s promise—all his children were circumcised in association with him in his household. St. Paul links circumcision with baptism in Colossians 2:11-12, and shows that we become part of Abraham’s household through circumcision in Galatians 3:27-29. Baptism is for God’s people, those who became part of it as adults through faith as well as their children who are associated with God’s people through their parents. 

2. Sacramental Participation in Our Heavenly Citizenship

Paul tells us in Philippians 3:20-21 that “our citizenship is in heaven.” To become a citizen of a new country, you have to go through a naturalization process and ceremony. Baptism is like heavenly naturalization, how we participate in our heavenly citizenship. Through baptism, we enjoy: 1) earthly participation in heavenly citizenship; 2) present participation in eternal life; 3) individual participation in God’s covenant people; and 4) human participation in Triune community

Reflection & Application Questions 

  1. Have you been baptized? Were you an adult or a child? 
  2. How have you understood baptism in the past? How do these passages inform or challenge the way you view it?
  3. The history of redemption and the gracious nature of God’s covenant in Christ demonstrate that God is the primary actor in baptism. How does this understanding of baptism shore up faith in your redemption in Christ? 
  4. How could deemphasizing God’s work in baptism potentially lead to a legalistic understanding of it? 
  5. Can baptism save you? Why must it be coupled with faith? 
  6. Baptism lets us participate in the blessings of the cross and resurrection. What aspect of our participation in these blessings makes you most grateful for the gospel? 

The Meaning of the Sacraments (Ephesians 1:3-10)

Due to technical difficulties, we were unable to record yesterday's sermon, the first in our Sacraments series. We've decided instead to include the full text of the sermon for you to review or to catch up with us if you missed it.


I grew up in a pretty traditional Baptist church in So. Cal. I learned a lot of Bible there, memorized a ton of verses, and I’m thankful for the way God used that church in my life. But I like to joke that the only point of theology I was taught growing up was this: “we don’t baptize babies.” 

I didn’t know why. I don’t remember any explanations. I just remember that was the one theological distinction that I was aware of.

In my 20s, I was introduced to theology for the first time, which started me down a path of studying the Bible and trying to understand the faith more deeply. And as I continued to study, my confidence in that one point of theology from my childhood began to weaken. 

About 4 years ago, I decided I needed to plant my flag. What do I believe about baptism? Why? What is the biblical practice? This has been a hot topic of debate for the last 400 years or so. Which side do I fall on?

After much study and prayer and soul-searching, I began to come out to members of our church about 3 years ago. I am a baby baptist. My position—that infant or paedo-baptism is the biblical practice—didn’t come quickly or easily for me. But it’s where I’ve landed. 

Today, we’re starting a series on the Sacraments. In our Protestant tradition, we believe that baptism and the Lord’s Supper are the two sacraments God has given us. Part of our reason as an Elder Team for deciding to do this series is to introduce this idea of infant baptism. We have studied it in depth for over 6 months and come to unified agreement that it is a biblical practice. In the next few weeks, I’ll be teaching on baptism from this perspective. But today our primary focus is going to be the idea of sacrament. What is it? What does the word mean? What is happening when we engage in baptism and the Lord’s Supper? That’s a question I hope to answer today. And as we define sacraments, I hope you’ll see God’s grace in Christ all the more clearly.

1. Sacraments Unite Us to Christ by Faith

God has “blessed us in Christ with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places” (Eph. 1:3). Ephesians 1 teaches that it was God’s eternal plan to pour out blessings on His people, to lavish us with his love. In Eph. 1:9-10, St. Paul writes that in Christ, God makes known “the mystery of his will… as a plan for the fullness of time, to unite all things in him, things in heaven and things on earth.” God’s plan was always to reconcile us to himself. He always wanted heaven and earth to meet in his people. This happened at the cross and resurrection of Jesus Christ! By faith, we are IN Christ, united to Him, one with Him. And now we, the church, are the place where heaven and earth meet today. People should come in here and get a sense of heaven among us because we are united to Christ. 

Paul uses the word “mystery” in v.9. Early in church history, that word was translated into Latin as sacramentum, where we get the word sacrament. Sacrament means mystery in the biblical sense. Mystery isn’t a Sherlock Holmes word. It’s a revealing word, a word that means something that was hidden has now been made known. God had always planned to pour out his love in Christ. Now that Christ has died and risen, we are PARTICIPANTS in the mystery of the gospel. 

Baptism and communion aren’t just rituals. They are mysteries. Not in a Scooby Doo way. No, the sacraments unite us to Christ by faith. In the sacraments, we are invited into a tangible, physical receiving of the spiritual reality of God’s covenant, His gracious promises to us fulfilled in Christ. 

When you finish a deal, traditionally, you shake on it. The handshake is not the deal. But it seals the deal. It completes it. The handshake is a sign that you trust one another, and a seal of the deal, an accomplishment of it. 

The sacraments are a handshake, a sign of God’s grace poured out upon you, a seal of your union with Christ through faith.

2. Rationalism Undermines Sacramental Participation

Now before we go on I have to talk to some of you. Because some of you are asking the question, “Ok, but what does that mean?” Maybe you’ve read some theology, heard some different teachings from different denominations and traditions. You want to get it. What’s the bottom line? Where does our church land? What does it mean?

Throughout history, there has been a theological tradition of restraining ourselves from saying more than the Bible says about the things of God. We don’t want to go beyond God’s self-revelation in his Word. We speak of these things in humility and submission to His glory and wisdom to tell us so much, and nothing more. 

The question, “What does it mean?” is a perfectly understandable one. But it can also be a dangerous one. It can be dangerous, because a tendency toward rationalism—elevating our human ability to understand divine things—can lead us to undermine the very grace we are seeking in Christ and the means by which he gives it. In fact, Paul directly addresses this tendency toward a rationalistic understanding of the faith in 1 Corinthians. We’ll look there briefly and see together that rationalism undermines our sacramental participation in Christ. I don’t have time to get deep into the passage, but I want to trace what Paul says there because I think it will help us remember the importance of submitting our reason to Christ.

In 1 Cor. 8, Paul begins to answer a question about whether a Christian can eat meat sacrificed to idols. Christians in Corinth know there’s only one God and that idols aren’t really gods. So what’s the big deal? We can eat what we want! True, Paul says. But remember: Knowledge puffs up, love builds up. You might hurt the faith of a weaker brother who doesn’t understand the theological emptiness of idols! So don’t do it, in love, Paul says. Surrender your “right” to eat that meat for the sake of love.

Then in chapter 9, he says, “Look at me! I’m an apostle. I have rights, that I have laid down, left and right, for the sake of the gospel and the love of others.” In ch.9, he lands his argument in v.22-23:

To the weak I became weak, that I might win the weak. I have become all things to all people, that by all means I might save some. I do it all for the sake of the gospel, that I may share with them in its blessings. 

So Paul gives up his rights in order to love others and promote the gospel. But that’s not the whole argument. The Corinthians think there’s nothing wrong with eating meat sacrificed to idols. Because of what they know—rationalism—they can do what they please. The material world has little significance because they have divorced the physical and the spiritual in their minds. 

That is what rationalism does: it divorces the spiritual from the physical. It says God’s grace is so great that it doesn’t REALLY matter if you obey. He will forgive you anyway. It doesn’t matter whether you eat that meat or not, because you know there’s no such thing as an idol REALLY. You can worship God everywhere and every day of the week; it doesn't REALLY matter if you "keep the Sabbath holy" and worship with God's people on Sunday.

Paul doesn’t let them go the route of rationalism. Instead, he links the physical acts of Israel’s worship and wilderness wandering to their union with Christ in the OT:

For I do not want you to be unaware, brothers, that our fathers were all under the cloud, and all passed through the sea, and all were baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea, and all ate the same spiritual food, and all drank the same spiritual drink. For they drank from the spiritual Rock that followed them, and the Rock was Christ. (1 Cor. 10:1-4)

Then he goes on to show how their idolatry—which the Corinthians seem to think is no big deal!—is what prevented that generation that came up out of Egypt from entering the promised land. Then the kicker: 

Therefore, my beloved, flee from idolatry.… The cup of blessing that we bless, is it not a participation in the blood of Christ? The bread that we break, is it not a participation in the body of Christ…? You cannot drink the cup of the Lord and the cup of demons. You cannot partake of the table of the Lord and the table of demons. (1 Cor. 10:14, 16, 21)

We might know that there’s nothing to Tarot cards or Ramadan. But that doesn’t mean we should have our future read or fast with our Muslim neighbors. The Corinthians thought, “our knowledge of spiritual things exonerates us from these false spiritual practices.” In reality, their rationalism put them in deep spiritual danger. It would have made them participants with demons like ancient Israel, Paul says.

So, what do the sacraments mean? When Jesus says, “this is my body,” is there a physical transformation taking place in the bread? If we baptized a baby that can’t trust Christ, does the water save the baby? These are important questions and we will no doubt touch on them in the coming weeks. But today, I want us to understand that rationalism undermines our sacramental participation. Our modern impulse to “get to the bottom” of everything is not always bad, and has done a lot of good. But when we take a scientific approach to the things of God, we are in dangerous territory. Enemy territory even. 

I want to show that when we participate in the sacraments, we participate in Christ. But I don’t want us to get distracted by things that can do us no spiritual good. Paul says in that passage, “If anyone thinks they know something, they do not yet know as they ought to know.” Our knowledge of God and the things of God stops at Scripture. We can’t know any more than he has revealed. We say what the Bible says, and then we silence ourselves in worship. Anything more and we run the risk of falling into a rationalism that can easily lead to idolatry. 

3. In the Sacraments We Participate in Christ Himself

But notice something. Paul says we can participate in demons or in Christ. That the sacraments are a participation in Christ Himself. 

Back at my Baptist Church in SoCal, I learned Galatians 2:20 through a song. It’s one of those verses I can remember most easily because of the song. St. Paul writes there: “I have been crucified with Christ and it is no longer I who live, but Christ lives in me. And the life which I now live in the flesh I live by faith in the Son of God who loved me and delivered himself up for me.” 

Now, Paul had NOT been literally crucified. He was alive and well as he wrote those words. So what did he mean? He meant that—by faith—he participates in the life of Christ Himself. He is united to Christ. And so are ALL of us who believe! And according to Paul in 1 Cor. 10, we participate in the life of Christ Jesus Himself whenever we participate in baptism and the Lord’s Supper. In the sacraments, we participate in Christ Himself

1) Earthly Participation in Heavenly Things

Listen to Eph. 2:4-6: 

But God, being rich in mercy, because of the great love with which he loved us, even when we were dead in our trespasses, made us alive together with Christ—by grace you have been saved—and raised us up with him and seated us with him in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus. 

Or Colossians 3:1-3:

If then you have been raised with Christ, seek the things that are above, where Christ is, seated at the right hand of God. Set your minds on things that are above, not on things that are on earth. For you have died, and your life is hidden with Christ in God. 

We set our minds on things above because that’s where our LIFE is. We are united to Christ! What does our participation in heavenly things look like? Is it purely mental? Intellectual? Rational? I assent to these truths? Or is it simply emotional? The only time I am really connecting to God is when I feel him? 

NO! The cup is a participation in the blood of Christ! The bread is a participation in the body of Christ!

We don’t merely participate in heavenly things rationally or emotionally. No, through the sacraments, we participate physically by faith. The sacraments are earthly participation in heavenly things

At the end of Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, Harry touches a championship cup to end a race. But as soon as he touches it, he is magically transported to another place. One moment, he’s in a maze with Cedric Digory; the next moment he’s whisked away to somewhere else entirely. 

The sacraments are not magic. No one will get whisked away to another geographical location upon picking up the bread or going under the water. But how do we enjoy participation in “every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ?” How do we taste and see that the Lord is good and that our life is hidden with Christ in God? How do we take hold here and now of the fact that our most important existence isn’t on earth, but seated with Christ in the heavenlies? The sacraments. They are earthly participation in heavenly things

2) Present Participation in Eternal Things

Not only that, but they are present participation in eternal things. God chose to redeem us in Christ “before the foundation of the world.” Christ is the first, the last and the living one, the beginning and the end. We are united to HIM who is eternal! 

One of my favorite passages in the Bible is 1 Corinthians 3:21-23:

For all things are yours, whether Paul or Apollos or Cephas or the world or life or death or the present or the future—all are yours, and you are Christ’s, and Christ is God’s. 

ALL things are OURS! All things are ours through CHRIST! Even life and death and the present and the future are ours in Christ! When we receive the Lord’s Supper, we take part in the Passover with Moses and the children of Israel; we eat the Last Supper with Christ and his disciples; and we participate in the future Wedding Supper of the Lamb that we will enjoy with Him when he comes again. When we are baptized, we are circumcised into Abraham’s covenant household; we are buried with Christ in the tomb and united to him on Resurrection Sunday; and we are clothed with the saints in heaven in spotless robes washed white in the blood of the lamb. 

Eternity breaks into our lives through the sacraments! The church past, present and future are all at hand when we are baptized into Christ and eat and drink at his table. Christ Himself—yesterday, today, and forever—is made present to us in the sacraments. They are present participation in eternal things!

3) Individual Participation in Covenantal and Communal Things

In John 17:20-21, Jesus prays for the unity of his church: 

I do not ask for these only, but also for those who will believe in me through their word, that they may all be one, just as you, Father, are in me, and I in you, that they also may be in us, so that the world may believe that you have sent me. 

Jesus is praying that all of us individuals would be united to Him and the Father and each other by the power of the Holy Spirit. Each person in the Godhead is united perfectly, and Jesus wants US to be united in that same way. How does that come about? How do we as individuals participate in Christ’s covenant community? It isn’t simply through having your name on a member roster or attending a worship service. Listen again to 1 Corinthians 10:16-17:

The cup of blessing that we bless, is it not a participation in the blood of Christ? The bread that we break, is it not a participation in the body of Christ? Because there is one bread, we who are many are one body, for we all partake of the one bread.

Paul is saying here that the sacraments are individual participation in covenantal and communal things. You don’t do baptism and the Lord’s Supper privately on your own if you can avoid it. They are communal signs that seal our union with Christ and each other! 

4) Human Participation in Divine Things

Our theme verse this year is Colossians 1:27: “To them God chose to make known how great among the Gentiles are the riches of the glory of this mystery, which is Christ in you, the hope of glory.” Notice the word “mystery,” sacrament in Latin. There is a sacramental reality in the church that Paul refers to here. It is the greatest privilege, the most incredible of Christian truths: by faith we are indwelled by the Holy Spirit and united to Christ. 

And how do we express that unity? Our union, not just with each other, but with the divine? We express it in the sacraments! We are united to God the Father, Spirit, and especially the Son through His finished work at the cross and resurrection. We take hold of that work by faith in Jesus. And we take hold of that reality, human participation in divine things, in the sacraments! 

What happens in the sacraments is not just between your ears. Or just in your feelings. What happens in the sacraments is between heaven and earth, the present and eternity, the individual and God’s covenant community, and between the human and the divine. We are not the primary actors in the sacraments—we are the recipients of a divine act of grace, of his eternal, gracious, heaven and earth-uniting plan in Christ. Hallelujah and amen!

Reflection & Application Questions 

  1. How have you understood the sacraments in the past? How has your understanding influenced the way you approach them?
  2. Have you trusted in Christ? Are you united to him by faith? How are the sacraments a tangible participation in that union? 
  3. Paul addresses the Corinthians’ rationalism in 1 Cor. 8-10. Where do you see this tendency to elevate our knowledge of divine things above or beyond what Scripture has revealed? Do you fall into the same temptation to “get to the bottom” of things like the sacraments?
  4. What aspect of our participation in Christ in the sacraments do you find most incredible? 
  5. Why would God allow us humans to participate in divine things (see Colossians 1:27)? What does that tell you about him?
  6. What should be our posture when we participate in the sacraments?

Jesus and Family (Mark 3:20-21, 31-35)

Sermon Recap

Family life is hard because people are hard. Jesus’s family was hard too. In Mark 3:20-21, 31-35, we see how Jesus responds to his family, and learn from Him what the family means in God’s kingdom and how we should live toward them. 

1. Jesus Offends Family Values

In Mark 3:21, Jesus’s family showed how difficult they could be. Their family values are offended by Jesus. This is because the earthly family is 1) Natural, 2) Exclusive, and 3) Fragile. Jesus offends our family values, but 4) the shock is a wake up call. We may be tempted to cling to family first and Christ second. But in Matthew 10:34-39, Jesus makes it clear that this is the path of idolatry and death. We need Jesus to redefine the family. 

2. Jesus Redefines the Family

This is just what Jesus does in Mark 10:33-35. He helps us see that, in God’s kingdom, the family is 1) Spiritual, 2) Inclusive, and 3) Unassailable. The spiritual family doesn’t mean the natural family is unimportant, however. Rather, through faith in Christ, 4) your family participates in God’s family

In Christ, we are set free to serve our family all the more. We see this in John 19:26-27 as he spends his precious dying breaths making sure his mother is cared for. Because we have been adopted into God’s family (Galatians 3:26), we carry God’s holiness and Spirit—his presence!—with us into our earthly families. We serve them in service to Christ. 

Reflection & Application Questions 

  1. Our earthly families are natural, exclusive, and fragile, and Jesus offends these family values. Which of these values is the most challenging for you to let Jesus offend? Why?
  2. Why does Jesus offend/shock us? Why do we need the shock?
  3. In what ways are you tempted to make an idol of your family? Reflect on that question and confess your idolatrous temptation to God.
  4. Jesus redefines family in God’s kingdom as spiritual, inclusive and unassailable. Which of these is the best news to you today? Take a moment and thank God for this truth!
  5. What does it mean that your family participates in God’s family? How does your faith in Christ make this real in your family today?
  6. We are set free by Christ to serve our family in love and sacrifice. What is one way he is calling you to serve your family? How is this difficult on your own? How can you depend on God’s Spirit to empower you for service?

Jesus and the Condemned (John 8:2-11)

Sermon Recap

We have all been condemned at one time or another. By friends, family, teachers, spiritual leaders, or other authorities in our lives. It feels awful, but it’s a common experience. In John 8:2-11, we see how Jesus responds to those who are condemned. 

1. Condemned Sinner

The woman is condemned by the Pharisees as a sinner in John 8:4-5. They were right that those guilty of adultery are condemned by the law of Moses (see Deut. 22:22). And the woman, in her shame and sin, knows she deserves it.And despite our best intentions, so do we.

2. Condemned God

The Pharisees are seeking to condemned, not just the woman, but Jesus Christ, God in the flesh. They seek to condemn him by throwing his words back in his face, and getting him in legal and political trouble. And they want to condemn Jesus as a false teacher, showing he is either a legalist (who would condone the stoning) or an antinomian (who says God’s law doesn’t matter). 

3. No Condemnation in Christ Jesus

Instead of fall in the trap, Jesus stoops and begins writing on the ground. He disarms the crowd by saying, “Let him who is without sin among you be the first to throw a stone at her” (John 8:7). And he shows what the gospel does to us. It doesn’t leave us to antinomianism or legalism. It brings us to grace in Christ where we are taught by him to “go and sin no more.” 

Reflection & Application Questions

  1. What are some examples of condemnation that happen in our culture? (Think of social media, the legal justice system, accusations of sexual impropriety, and religious institutions)
  2. Why do we as 21st century people have such a hard time with the idea that sin deserves divine condemnation? Why do we avoid thinking of this sort of thing?
  3. How have you contributed to the unraveling of the love on which God founded the world?
  4. Do you tend to be more antinomian (anti-law) or legalistic in your spiritual life? Why?
  5. Why did Christ have to be condemned in our place?
  6. What does the fact that Christ was condemned for us mean for our relationship to God? What does it mean for our relationship toward others?

Jesus and the Ambitious (Mark 10:35-45)

Sermon Recap

James and John are ambitious to get position and honor in Jesus’s Kingdom. In Mark 10:35-45, he confronts worldly ambition and shows them the path to true greatness. 

1. The Posture of Ambition

Ambition is fundamentally self-seeking. James and John show that ambition is about 1) my will (Mark 10:35), 2) my glory (Mark 10:37), and 3) my ability (Mark 10:39). 

2. Jesus Names Worldly Ambition

Jesus names worldly ambition’s goal for what it is: illegitimate domination of others (Mark 10:42). This is fundamentally destructive to God’s world. He gave us dominion over His creation (Gen. 1:28), but we are not to be dominated by anything else in creation—including others.

3. Jesus’s Zeal for God’s Kingdom

Jesus set his face to go to Jerusalem to drink the cup of God’s wrath, his holy justice (see Isaiah 51:7; Mark 10:38). He was determined to be baptized, to die an atoning death for us (Romans 6:3-4; Mark 10:38). His desire was to be our ransom (Mark 10:45). Jesus wasn’t ambitious: he was zealous for the kingdom. 

4. The Gospel Turns Ambition into Faith

When we look to Christ, he turns our ambition into faith. He shows us how to yield to the Father’s will (Mark 10:40). He teaches us to seek the Father’s glory, not our own (John 8:50; Mark 10:43-44). In the face of worldly ambition, Jesus preached the gospel. He pointed to the good news of himself as King and sacrifice for us. 

Reflection & Application Questions

  1. Why were James and John ambitious? How are you tempted to ambition in your life?
  2. Ambition wants my will, my glory, and my ability. Where do you see these tendencies in yourself? 
  3. We live in a world full of ambition and attempts at domination—technologically, politically, socially, and economically. But we have no right to dominate fellow image bearers of God. How are we complicit in this undermining of God’s created order? What does repentance look like? (See Psalm 19:12-14) 
  4. What is Jesus’s answer to ambition? What is most amazing about this to you? 
  5. How does your ambition need to be turned to faith? How can you pursue this? Pray for this?

Jesus and the Doubting (John 20:19-31)

Sermon Recap

Every person comes face to face with doubt at some point in their lives. Our passage today sheds light on how Jesus addressed the biggest doubter in the Bible and what that means for us in our doubts.

The Heft of Doubt

It's hard to blame Thomas for doubting. He had given up everything to follow Jesus so when the other disciples tell him he's alive, it makes sense that he thought it was a cruel prank. Yet when Thomas finds out that these reports are true, there is only one response; "My Lord and my God." Our doubts matter because the answers to them are life-changing. To ignore them or belittle them is to do so at our own peril. We ought to explore them and ask hard questions because the truth matters so much for how we are to live.

Our Honesty in Doubt

We typically faith and doubt are opposites but they aren't. Faith and control are. Honest doubt is just like honest faith in that it's humble, recognizes its insufficiency, and allows for mystery. Control refuses to embrace any of those things but is proud in its powers, self-sufficient, and demands to have all answers on its own terms. This is why doubt often leads to faith and faith should allow for doubt to exist. It is when we try to take control of our own lives that we lose faith and become dishonest with our doubts.

Our Hope in Doubt

So how do you move forward in the face of doubt? First, listen to the testimonies of the eyewitnesses of the resurrected Christ. Jesus appeared  to them for this very purpose, so that  they would tell the world that he was Lord and King. Second, know that Jesus is patiently with you in your doubts, not abandoning you but giving you space to explore and listening to your prayers. Last, stop putting conditions on your belief and holding God hostage. If you find yourself saying, "I'll believe if XYZ happens...." then you want XYZ to be your functional savior,  not Jesus. Jesus will not have it any other way. Drop your conditions and find Jesus to be exactly who he says he is.

Sermon Resources

Podcast mentioned in introduction - Radiolab, "Rocked by Doubt"

“There is no such thing as a neutral inquiry when it comes to questions about God.”

- Mark Galli

“Honest doubt, what I would call devotional doubt, is marked, it seems to me, by three qualities: humility, which makes one’s attitude impossible to celebrate; insufficiency, which makes it impossible to rest; and mystery, which continues to tug you upward – or at least outward – even in your lowest moments. Such doubt is painful – more painful, in fact, than any of the other forms – but its pain is active rather than passive, purifying rather than stultifying.”

- Christian Wiman

“The way forward is the way of faith, a faith that does not deny questioning but orients questions toward understanding and grounds them in love. For faith is the pretext for questioning well, the atmosphere that sustains patient, longing inquiry.”

- Matthew Lee Anderson